有价值的文章
才值得我们收藏

经济学人逝者 || ISIS头目阿布·巴克尔·巴格达迪

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi

点我查看视频地址

1

导读


ISIS头目巴格达迪是如何走到今天的?


2

听力|精读|翻译|词组

The blood-soaked scholar

嗜血博士

Obituary: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi

阿布·巴克尔·巴格达迪

The blood-soaked scholar

嗜血博士

注:

从神学家到嗜血屠夫:ISIS头目巴格达迪是如何崛起的?(超链)

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (born Ibrahim Awad), leader of Islamic State, blew himself up on October 26th, aged 48

阿布·巴克尔·巴格达迪(本名易卜拉欣·阿瓦徳)极端组织伊斯兰国首领,于1026日引爆炸弹自杀身亡,终年48

No one paid particular attention to the boy who haunted his local mosque in Samarra, 60 miles north of Baghdad, and Ibrahim Awad never said much to them. When he did, he mumbled, being shy. His father taught Koranic chant there, so in his spare time Ibrahim would do the same, unobserved in some corner, muttering over the holy book. When it came to singing out, though, he would suddenly find his voice, making the words ring through the building. They noticed him then.

巴格达以北60英里的萨马拉清真寺,是易卜拉欣·阿瓦德小时候经常参拜的地方。当时人们并没有特别注意他,易卜拉欣也很少和其他人讲话。即使讲话,也是小声咕哝,一副羞答答的样子。他父亲在那里教人诵念《古兰经》,小易卜拉欣则在闲暇时模仿父亲,躲在某个角落,喃喃地念着圣书。但每当唱圣歌时,他的声音会突然嘹亮起来,歌声响彻整个清真寺。那时,人们才开始注意到他。

In much the same way, over the years, he worked unobtrusively towards leadership of the world’s most feared terrorist group, Islamic State: towards control of an area covering 34,000 square miles, and command over bloody and random attacks as far afield as Paris, Sri Lanka, Florida and Manchester. He moved from one jihadist outfit to another invisibly and with discipline. Although his head was full of lions, unsheathed swords and infidels dying in their own blood, he did not fight. He behaved like a secretary, serving the tea at meetings and fading into the background. One of his aliases was “the Ghost”. When he was not driving by night to meet jihadists, he was finishing his doctoral thesis on medieval Koranic recitation. But in June 2014, in the pulpit of the Grand Mosque in Mosul, the city his forces had easily overrun only days before, he once more found his voice. Now that is had territory—the city of Raqqa, too, had fallen to him—he declared a Sunni caliphate and himself Caliph Ibrahim, the most pious, the warrior, the reviver, who would take Baghdad and lead his mujahideen as far as Rome. He not only spoke, but posted his sermon on YouTube. The world noticed him then.

多年来,易卜拉欣以同样不引人注目的方式,坐上了世界最令人胆寒的恐怖组织伊斯兰国的头把交椅,控制了34,000平方英里的领土,指挥了远至巴黎、斯里兰卡、佛罗里达州和曼彻斯特的数起无差别血腥暴力袭击事件。他悄无声息地从一个圣战组织转移到另一个,转移过程纪律严明。尽管他满脑子都是征服、暴力、屠杀异教徒,但他自己却从不亲自上战场。他像秘书一样,在会议上斟茶递水之后就悄悄隐到幕后。易卜拉欣有一个外号叫鬼影。如果他没有乘夜幕驱车去见圣战分子,就是在写关于中世纪《古兰经》诵念的博士论文。20146月,伊斯兰国轻而易举就占领了伊拉克摩苏尔。几天后,在摩苏尔大清真寺的讲坛上,易卜拉欣再次发出了自己的声音。既然已经占有了领地叙利亚东部最大城市拉卡也落入手中他宣布建立逊尼哈里发国,自封为哈里发·易卜拉欣——最虔诚的战士、复兴者;他还扬言要攻下巴格达,带领圣战者打到罗马。他不仅这么说了,而且还把布道发布在油管上。那时,全世界都注意到他了。

He also surprised those who thought they knew him, the family man and keen footballer, living for years in a garret by the Tobchi mosque and teaching children there. Obviously he had been galvanised by the American invasion and his imprisonment in 2004 at Camp Bucca, where he taught the other yellow-clad inmates so serenely that his crusader-captors thought him no threat, and let him out. But his interest in the strict imposition of Islamic law came earlier. At university, prompted by an uncle, he had joined a jihadist-Salafist wing of the Muslim Brotherhood. Long before that in the Samarra mosque he would devoutly clean and sweep, aware that his ancestors had won respect for doing that task. He would chastise his neighbours for their un-Islamic smoking, tattoos, or dancing with women. Friends called him “The Believer”, and he could unsettle them with his stare long before he had power enough to order the killing of anyone who defied him.

了解易卜拉欣的人以为,他是一个足球迷,一个常年住在托比(Tobchi)清真寺附近阁楼上教孩子们念书的顾家男人。但是他的行为让那些人大跌眼镜2004,在美国悍然入侵伊拉克一年后,他被捕入狱,这显然刺激了他。在布卡营,易卜拉欣为其他穿着黄囚服的犯人讲课。他表现得如此平和,以至于美军觉得他没有威胁,把他放走。其实,很早之前他就有心推行严格的伊斯兰教法。上大学时,在叔叔的鼓动下,易卜拉欣加入了穆斯林兄弟会的圣战组织萨拉菲斯特派。在那之前的萨玛拉清真寺时期,他虔诚地打扫,因为他意识到自己的祖先正是因为这么做才赢得了尊重。他会严厉谴责邻居违反伊斯兰教法的行为,如吸烟、纹身和与女性共舞等。朋友们叫他信仰者,那时他还没有足够的权力处决反抗他的人,但他的眼神就足以令他们不安。

Time and again his Mosul sermon nodded to history and to the Prophet. That was the difference he, a scholar, made to the jihadist movement. He was not an engineer like Osama bin Laden or a doctor like Ayman al-Zawahiri, both leaders of al-Qaeda. He brought intellectual weight, as well as the membership he claimed in the Qurayshi tribe, descendants of the Prophet. When he spoke at Mosul he wore black robes to evoke the Abbasids, the most powerful caliphs of early Islam. His nom de guerre, coined earlier, anticipated this day: Abu Bakr, the first caliph after Muhammad’s death; al-Baghdadi, the Abbasids’ capital. The caliphate itself was ordained by Allah, the ultimate means for the ever-bickering Arabs to unite as a holy nation. They had forgotten it. He would build it.

巴格达迪在摩苏尔Mosul的布道一次又一次地向历史和先知致敬。这就是他的学者背景带给圣战运动的影响;这也是他与众不同之处。他既不像基地组织领导人乌萨马··拉丹Osama bin Laden),也不像另一位领导人艾曼·扎瓦希里al-Zawahiri);前者有工程师背景,后者则是一名医生。巴格达迪给组织带来了智慧,和高贵的出身——宣称自己出身最高贵的Qurayshi部族,是先知的后裔(穆斯林家族,起源于先知穆罕穆德降生先后生活在麦加的Qurayshi部落)。他在摩苏尔讲话时,身着黑袍,以此呼唤伊斯兰早期阿拔斯王朝最强大的诸位哈里发们 早年给自己取的化名预言了这一天的到来:阿布·巴克尔穆罕默德死后第一位哈里发之名;巴格达迪则是阿拔斯王朝的首都。哈里发帝国由真主指定,这是使争执不休的阿拉伯人团结一心建立圣国的最后希望。世人皆已忘记,但他偏要把它建造起来。

注释:

Qureyshi (also known as Qureshi, Quraishi, Qurayshi, Qureshy, Quraishy, Qoraishi, Qoreshi, Koraishi, Kureshi, Kureshy, Kureishi, Coreish, Urdu:قریشی‎) is a Muslim family name, originating from the Quraysh tribe, which was the noblest tribe in Mecca around the time of the birth of Muhammad. At the time of Muhammad’s birth, his grandfather Abdul-Muttalib was the tribal head. 选自欧陆词典

From the moment he had joined al-Qaeda in Iraq in 2005, he had global aims. When, the next year, it re-formed into Islamic State of Iraq, he became its propagandist: at first in Nineveh province, then as far as he could get. In 2010 he became its leader; by 2013, he relaunched it as plain Islamic State; by 2014 he had broken from al-Qaeda, rejecting Mr Zawahiri’s orders to stay in Iraq. There was too much to do in Syria as it collapsed: coalitions to pursue, fighters to recruit, oilfields and hostages to seize to provide a revenue stream. Assiduously he drew up dossiers of local police and potential donors, looking out for anyone useful, as he had made use of Baathists and Saddam’s former officers in Iraq. Meanwhile he targeted flaunters of Islamic law, in beach resorts or nightclubs, no matter. Each strike seemed to draw young men and some young women too, from all corners, to follow the black “I testify” flag. By bold leaps and bounds his potential caliphate grew.

巴格达迪自2005年加入伊拉克基地组织那一刻起,就有着全球性的目标。2006年,伊拉克基地组织重新组建为伊拉克伊斯兰国,巴格达迪成为该组织的宣传者:起先他的足迹只限于尼尼微省内,后来则覆盖到所有能到之处 2010年,巴格达迪成为伊拉克伊斯兰国的领导者; 2013年,他将其改名为伊斯兰国;到2014年,他脱离基地组织,拒绝了扎瓦希里(Zawahiri)要求其留在伊拉克的命令。叙利亚崩溃之时,他有太多事情要做:拉拢新组建的联合政府,招募战士,占领油田、绑架人质以获得收入来源。他利用复兴社会党党员和萨达姆时期的伊拉克官员,孜孜不倦地草拟了当地警察及潜在捐助者的档案,寻找一切可用之人。与此同时,他把目标锁定住了那些明目张胆违反伊斯兰教法的人们,无论在海滩度假胜地还是夜总会中,都不会妨碍他动手清除目标。每一次出击,似乎都能吸引世界各地的年轻男人包括一些年轻女人追随黑色的我作证旗帜。就这样,他心目中的哈里发国飞速发展、不断壮大。

In the cities he conquered he set up offices to take in taxes and traffic fines, register babies and licence marriages, as in a proper state. He imposed the sharia in which he was expert: hands hacked off for stealing, whippings for drunkenness, adulterous women stoned. He also expanded it, justifying everything smoothly with holy writ. Unbelievers were expelled or killed if they did not pay their taxes. Yazidis were driven from their homes and their women abducted to be sold and raped with organised efficiency. Enemies were crucified, burned alive, drowned in cages, beheaded with slow saws, while everything was filmed and posted online for the world to observe and dread. He sometimes shared the videos first with the kufr women he kept chained in a nearby room for his own pleasure. Raping an infidel woman was a spiritual exercise that brought a believer close to God.

在那些被占领的城市中,他会实行占领区行政化,征收税费和交通罚款,注册出生人口和发放婚姻证明,宛若一个有序的国家。他严行伊斯兰法:偷窃者砍掉双手;醉酒者受鞭刑;通奸女子受石刑。他将伊斯兰法拓展了,从神圣的章句里找到证据将他的酷刑合法化。那些不缴纳税款的异教徒被驱逐或被绞杀。他们驱逐了亚兹迪人,掳走了他们的女人,有组织地进行贩卖、强奸。反对者或被钉死,或被活活烧死,或被关在笼子中淹死,或被慢慢锯掉脑袋。他将这一切拍成视频,发到网上,让这个世界看到他们的所作所为,让所有人陷入恐惧。有时他还会将这些视频给异教徒的女人(他会将一些异教女子绑在附近的房间,供自己享乐)看。在他看来强奸异教女子是一种精神的修炼,可以助信仰者离真神更进一步。       

注释:

https://www.jiemian.com/article/504606.html 介绍了伊斯兰国不同于其他恐怖主义组织的地方。里面有伊斯兰国的管理结构介绍,认为伊斯兰国具备了准国家的形态。 

While all this went on he was still hidden, still constantly on the move. Visitors who wished to see him were stripped of all devices, blindfolded and driven for hours to a blank room, where he would softly sermonise. Many intelligence agencies declared him dead, but they were wrong. He made audio exhortations, and in 2019 showed himself again, congratulating his fighters for the Easter church bombings in Sri Lanka that had killed 290 people. Now, like bin Laden, he had a Kalashnikov as a prop. His caliphate had crumbled away, but he fortified his followers by invoking the Battle of the Trench in 627, when Muhammad with 3,000 men had prevailed against a force of 10,000, and had pulled his Ahzab rivals over to his side. He appealed to the soldiers of the caliphate to fight like that, to the last drop of blood.

暴行一直在发生,可巴格达迪却一直深居简出、狡兔三窟。那些想要见他的人必须上交所有的设备和武器,蒙上眼睛,坐上几小时的车,拉到一个空屋子里。在那里他们将听到巴格达迪的布道,温润又柔和。很多情报机构都曾宣布过巴格达迪的死讯,但他们都错了。巴格达迪曾用录音证明自己还活着,并在2019年露面,祝贺他的战士们复活节那天在斯里兰卡发动的教堂爆炸事件,那场爆炸造成了290人死亡。如今,和本·拉登一样,巴格达迪也拄着一把卡拉什尼科夫冲锋枪。他的伊斯兰国已然崩溃,但是他一直用627年联盟之战的胜利(当时默罕默德用3000人战胜了10000人,将敌人引诱到自己的战地)来鼓舞战士们,呼吁他们学习哈里发的战士,战斗至最后一滴血。

注:

the Battle of the Trench也称the Battle of the Confederate

Muhammad had dug a trench to frustrate his enemies. Caliph Ibrahim had dug a tunnel, but it was dead-ended, and he had to deploy his suicide-vest to make himself disappear. 

默罕默德挖了一条壕沟来阻挡敌人;而哈里发·易卜拉欣(即巴格达迪)所挖的却是一条死胡同。最终他只能引爆自杀背心,来逃脱人间的审判。

翻译组:

Kemay,决心练好笔译的未来口译员

Sheri,坚信可以forever young的老年人

Lixia,女,爱爬山的健身小白,美食狂人

校核组:

Alex,不务正业的理工男

Vicky,少儿英语老师+笔译新人

Dave,实力校对,肌肉男大学教师,文学翻译+CATTI一笔二口

3

观点|评论|思考

本次观点由Nikolae全权执笔

Nikolae,子承父业,蛋糕厂(伪)员工,AKB49

古希腊英雄赫拉克勒斯一次接受了迈锡尼国王的委托,前去讨伐九头蛇许德拉(Hydra)。许德拉和一般的怪兽相比,它的恐怖之处不仅仅在于它有九个头,而且每当一个头被人砍去,会在相同的位置再长出两个头,这新长出的两个头也同样具有再生的能力,以此类推。宗教极端势力正是现代世界的九头蛇,是“百足之虫,死而不僵”的蜈蚣,尤其在战火纷飞的中东地区更是一股难以完全扑灭的燎原之火,随时有死灰复燃的可能。

文章并没有给出是什么让一个原来仅仅只是比较坚持伊斯兰教法的人成为了极端主义者。举个例子,每个人身边都可能会有一些人强烈建议你做某些事情,但你即使不做,他也没办法对你下手。长期经济不景气滋生了不满和反叛情绪,再加上本已存在的教派矛盾、阶级矛盾和民族矛盾,使得中东地区就如同一桶随时可能爆炸的火药桶,而后被“9•11”事件点燃,中东彻底乱成了一锅粥。巴格达迪和他的“伊斯兰国”正是抓住了美国发动伊拉克战争,摧毁了伊拉克的国防力量这一契机,迅速如野火般发展壮大起来,成为了一股令世界为之颤抖的力量。手握权力以后,巴格达迪就可以把他的伊斯兰教法强加于归自己统治的人们,这种统治带来的满足感使其思想更加极端化,手段越来越残忍,野心越来越庞大,由此才形成了当初骇人听闻的“伊斯兰国”。

对待恐怖主义必须严厉打击,这是每一位爱好和平人士的共识。巴格达迪的死对反恐战争而言是一次大胜利,却给未来的形势又蒙上了一层迷雾。巴格达迪如此深居简出,只是因其偶尔露面我们才知道他是“伊斯兰国”的领导人。试问在他的背后,还有没有比他更加强大、更加阴险、更加野蛮、更加残忍的大脑?美国人砍下了“伊斯兰国”的嘴,可只要中东乱象继续维持一天,那么“伊斯兰国”的大脑就还在。今天杀掉了一个巴格达迪,明天可能在其他地方冒出三个、五个、十个、一百个巴格达迪,就如赫拉克勒斯砍掉了许德拉的一个头,却被新长出来的两个头团团围困一样。赫拉克勒斯依靠助手伊俄拉俄斯的帮助,每砍掉许德拉的一个头便令助手立刻灼烧伤口,防止长出新头,最终杀死了许德拉。当面对现实世界的许德拉的时候,属于我们的伊俄拉俄斯又在哪里?有一点可以确定,只要枪炮声和族群间的敌视依旧存在,前方等着我们的,只有和宗教极端势力长久的缠斗而已。

4

愿景

打造
独立思考 | 国际视野 | 英文学习

小组

现有经济学人讨论群一个,如果您也有兴趣,可联系小编WeChat : foxwulihua。由于每天加小编人很多,为提高效率,大家添加小编,暗号“请求加入TE讨论群”,小编通过后,请做好以下三点:

1.点赞转发公众号任一文章到朋友圈(相对比较“猥琐”,但是不进群不强求)

2.回答三个问题(在公众号后台回复“群规”,请务必仔细阅读群规以及出现的三个问题)

3.加小编后做个简单的自我介绍,谢谢大家。

点击下方图片进行小程序打卡


赞(0) 打赏

觉得文章有用就打赏一下文章作者

支付宝扫一扫打赏

微信扫一扫打赏