经济学人逝者 || ISIS头目阿布·巴克尔·巴格达迪

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi







The blood-soaked scholar


Obituary: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi


The blood-soaked scholar




Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (born Ibrahim Awad), leader of Islamic State, blew himself up on October 26th, aged 48


No one paid particular attention to the boy who haunted his local mosque in Samarra, 60 miles north of Baghdad, and Ibrahim Awad never said much to them. When he did, he mumbled, being shy. His father taught Koranic chant there, so in his spare time Ibrahim would do the same, unobserved in some corner, muttering over the holy book. When it came to singing out, though, he would suddenly find his voice, making the words ring through the building. They noticed him then.


In much the same way, over the years, he worked unobtrusively towards leadership of the world’s most feared terrorist group, Islamic State: towards control of an area covering 34,000 square miles, and command over bloody and random attacks as far afield as Paris, Sri Lanka, Florida and Manchester. He moved from one jihadist outfit to another invisibly and with discipline. Although his head was full of lions, unsheathed swords and infidels dying in their own blood, he did not fight. He behaved like a secretary, serving the tea at meetings and fading into the background. One of his aliases was “the Ghost”. When he was not driving by night to meet jihadists, he was finishing his doctoral thesis on medieval Koranic recitation. But in June 2014, in the pulpit of the Grand Mosque in Mosul, the city his forces had easily overrun only days before, he once more found his voice. Now that is had territory—the city of Raqqa, too, had fallen to him—he declared a Sunni caliphate and himself Caliph Ibrahim, the most pious, the warrior, the reviver, who would take Baghdad and lead his mujahideen as far as Rome. He not only spoke, but posted his sermon on YouTube. The world noticed him then.


He also surprised those who thought they knew him, the family man and keen footballer, living for years in a garret by the Tobchi mosque and teaching children there. Obviously he had been galvanised by the American invasion and his imprisonment in 2004 at Camp Bucca, where he taught the other yellow-clad inmates so serenely that his crusader-captors thought him no threat, and let him out. But his interest in the strict imposition of Islamic law came earlier. At university, prompted by an uncle, he had joined a jihadist-Salafist wing of the Muslim Brotherhood. Long before that in the Samarra mosque he would devoutly clean and sweep, aware that his ancestors had won respect for doing that task. He would chastise his neighbours for their un-Islamic smoking, tattoos, or dancing with women. Friends called him “The Believer”, and he could unsettle them with his stare long before he had power enough to order the killing of anyone who defied him.


Time and again his Mosul sermon nodded to history and to the Prophet. That was the difference he, a scholar, made to the jihadist movement. He was not an engineer like Osama bin Laden or a doctor like Ayman al-Zawahiri, both leaders of al-Qaeda. He brought intellectual weight, as well as the membership he claimed in the Qurayshi tribe, descendants of the Prophet. When he spoke at Mosul he wore black robes to evoke the Abbasids, the most powerful caliphs of early Islam. His nom de guerre, coined earlier, anticipated this day: Abu Bakr, the first caliph after Muhammad’s death; al-Baghdadi, the Abbasids’ capital. The caliphate itself was ordained by Allah, the ultimate means for the ever-bickering Arabs to unite as a holy nation. They had forgotten it. He would build it.

巴格达迪在摩苏尔Mosul的布道一次又一次地向历史和先知致敬。这就是他的学者背景带给圣战运动的影响;这也是他与众不同之处。他既不像基地组织领导人乌萨马··拉丹Osama bin Laden),也不像另一位领导人艾曼·扎瓦希里al-Zawahiri);前者有工程师背景,后者则是一名医生。巴格达迪给组织带来了智慧,和高贵的出身——宣称自己出身最高贵的Qurayshi部族,是先知的后裔(穆斯林家族,起源于先知穆罕穆德降生先后生活在麦加的Qurayshi部落)。他在摩苏尔讲话时,身着黑袍,以此呼唤伊斯兰早期阿拔斯王朝最强大的诸位哈里发们 早年给自己取的化名预言了这一天的到来:阿布·巴克尔穆罕默德死后第一位哈里发之名;巴格达迪则是阿拔斯王朝的首都。哈里发帝国由真主指定,这是使争执不休的阿拉伯人团结一心建立圣国的最后希望。世人皆已忘记,但他偏要把它建造起来。


Qureyshi (also known as Qureshi, Quraishi, Qurayshi, Qureshy, Quraishy, Qoraishi, Qoreshi, Koraishi, Kureshi, Kureshy, Kureishi, Coreish, Urdu:قریشی‎) is a Muslim family name, originating from the Quraysh tribe, which was the noblest tribe in Mecca around the time of the birth of Muhammad. At the time of Muhammad’s birth, his grandfather Abdul-Muttalib was the tribal head. 选自欧陆词典

From the moment he had joined al-Qaeda in Iraq in 2005, he had global aims. When, the next year, it re-formed into Islamic State of Iraq, he became its propagandist: at first in Nineveh province, then as far as he could get. In 2010 he became its leader; by 2013, he relaunched it as plain Islamic State; by 2014 he had broken from al-Qaeda, rejecting Mr Zawahiri’s orders to stay in Iraq. There was too much to do in Syria as it collapsed: coalitions to pursue, fighters to recruit, oilfields and hostages to seize to provide a revenue stream. Assiduously he drew up dossiers of local police and potential donors, looking out for anyone useful, as he had made use of Baathists and Saddam’s former officers in Iraq. Meanwhile he targeted flaunters of Islamic law, in beach resorts or nightclubs, no matter. Each strike seemed to draw young men and some young women too, from all corners, to follow the black “I testify” flag. By bold leaps and bounds his potential caliphate grew.

巴格达迪自2005年加入伊拉克基地组织那一刻起,就有着全球性的目标。2006年,伊拉克基地组织重新组建为伊拉克伊斯兰国,巴格达迪成为该组织的宣传者:起先他的足迹只限于尼尼微省内,后来则覆盖到所有能到之处 2010年,巴格达迪成为伊拉克伊斯兰国的领导者; 2013年,他将其改名为伊斯兰国;到2014年,他脱离基地组织,拒绝了扎瓦希里(Zawahiri)要求其留在伊拉克的命令。叙利亚崩溃之时,他有太多事情要做:拉拢新组建的联合政府,招募战士,占领油田、绑架人质以获得收入来源。他利用复兴社会党党员和萨达姆时期的伊拉克官员,孜孜不倦地草拟了当地警察及潜在捐助者的档案,寻找一切可用之人。与此同时,他把目标锁定住了那些明目张胆违反伊斯兰教法的人们,无论在海滩度假胜地还是夜总会中,都不会妨碍他动手清除目标。每一次出击,似乎都能吸引世界各地的年轻男人包括一些年轻女人追随黑色的我作证旗帜。就这样,他心目中的哈里发国飞速发展、不断壮大。

In the cities he conquered he set up offices to take in taxes and traffic fines, register babies and licence marriages, as in a proper state. He imposed the sharia in which he was expert: hands hacked off for stealing, whippings for drunkenness, adulterous women stoned. He also expanded it, justifying everything smoothly with holy writ. Unbelievers were expelled or killed if they did not pay their taxes. Yazidis were driven from their homes and their women abducted to be sold and raped with organised efficiency. Enemies were crucified, burned alive, drowned in cages, beheaded with slow saws, while everything was filmed and posted online for the world to observe and dread. He sometimes shared the videos first with the kufr women he kept chained in a nearby room for his own pleasure. Raping an infidel woman was a spiritual exercise that brought a believer close to God.



https://www.jiemian.com/article/504606.html 介绍了伊斯兰国不同于其他恐怖主义组织的地方。里面有伊斯兰国的管理结构介绍,认为伊斯兰国具备了准国家的形态。 

While all this went on he was still hidden, still constantly on the move. Visitors who wished to see him were stripped of all devices, blindfolded and driven for hours to a blank room, where he would softly sermonise. Many intelligence agencies declared him dead, but they were wrong. He made audio exhortations, and in 2019 showed himself again, congratulating his fighters for the Easter church bombings in Sri Lanka that had killed 290 people. Now, like bin Laden, he had a Kalashnikov as a prop. His caliphate had crumbled away, but he fortified his followers by invoking the Battle of the Trench in 627, when Muhammad with 3,000 men had prevailed against a force of 10,000, and had pulled his Ahzab rivals over to his side. He appealed to the soldiers of the caliphate to fight like that, to the last drop of blood.



the Battle of the Trench也称the Battle of the Confederate

Muhammad had dug a trench to frustrate his enemies. Caliph Ibrahim had dug a tunnel, but it was dead-ended, and he had to deploy his suicide-vest to make himself disappear. 




Sheri,坚信可以forever young的老年人















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